Black Hairy Tongue (BHT) Definition, Causes, Treatment

Lingua Villosa Nigra

Black Hairy Tongue - BHT - Lingua Villosa Nigra - Black Hairy Tongue Causes - Black Hairy Tongue Treatment - Black Hairy Tongue Symptoms - What is black hairy tongue?

Definition of Black Hairy Tongue


Black hairy tongue (lingua villosa nigra), hairy tongue (lingua villosa)) may be scary, but the situation is harmless. As a short, coarse definition, bacteria or fungi cause the tongue to appear black and hairy, especially after oral hygiene in patients with altered texture and color of taste buds, resulting in the appearance of black pile tongue or black pile . In some cases, the length of the filiform papilla, the filiform papillary, which should normally be about 1 mm in length, is measured more than 15 mm. Because of this image on the back of many patients, tongue cancer causes fear of the wart (papilloma on the stomach), thinking of the onset of oral tumor. Although the black hairy tongue seems alarming, it usually does not cause any health problems and is usually painless. for children and 8.3% for young adults and 57% for those who are drug-addicted and imprisoned.


Taste buds can grow up to 15 times their normal length (this is like a hairy or bloom). Normally, the taste buds are pinkish-white. However, as they grow, they are painted due to food, beverages, and possibly pigments from bacteria or yeast, and they appear as black or dark brown feathers or bristles. Most of the time this color is black. However, brown, yellow, green or other colors can also emerge.

When you stick your tongue out, imagine it's jet black and furry. It may be a little scary, but I would like to give the following information about its causes and treatment.

Causes of Black Hairy Tongue

 
Black Hairy Tongue - BHT - Lingua Villosa Nigra - Black Hairy Tongue Causes - Black Hairy Tongue Treatment - Black Hairy Tongue Symptoms - What is black hairy tongue?
Among the causes of black hairy tongue is first colonization of the pathogens such as bacteria and fungi on the tongue. After this infection or colonization, the taste buds (papillaries) start to grow and start to prolong hair-like projections. Taste buds can grow up to 15 times their normal length (this is like a hairy or bloom). Normally, the taste buds are pinkish-white. However, as they grow, they are painted due to food, beverages, and possibly pigments from bacteria or yeast, and appear as black or dark brown feathers or bristles. Most of the time this color is black. However, brown, yellow, green or other colors can also emerge.
 
Certain lifestyles and habits can make people more susceptible to black hairy tongue development. These habits and other factors:
 
• bad oral hygiene
• smoking or smoking
• drinking coffee or tea
• use of antibiotics (may disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in the mouth)
• dehydration
• medicines containing chemical bismuth (eg Pepto-Bismol for stomach uptake)
• do not produce enough saliva (use medication to prevent disease or saliva production)
• regularly use garbage containing peroxide, witch hazel or menthol
• To receive head and neck radiation therapy

Apart from these, black hairy tongue is more common to men, to those who use intravenous medication, and to those who are HIV positive.
 
Black Hairy Tongue - BHT - Lingua Villosa Nigra - Black Hairy Tongue Causes - Black Hairy Tongue Treatment - Black Hairy Tongue Symptoms - What is black hairy tongue?
Prolonged use of oxidizing mouthwashes containing sodium perborate, sodium peroxide, and hydrogen peroxide has been associated with the development of black hairy tongue. Food consumption of herbal tea and sugars can cause a lowering of the pH of the back of the tongue, which promotes chromogenic bacterial overgrowth. The use of systemic and local drugs plays a common role in the development of black hairy tongue. Antibiotics such as penicillin, aureomycin, erythromycin, doxycycline, and neomycin are most commonly associated with this disorder. Specifically, the use of local or systemic antibiotics can significantly alter the oral flora, thus potentially predisposing the patient to develop black hairy tongue. On the other hand, marked anatomical changes in filiform papillae may cause the patient to capture foreign matter and stimulate local microbial overgrowth, which results in the typical color changes seen in patients with this condition. In addition, patients using xerostomia such as antipsychotics (including olanzapine and chlorpromazine) are also predisposed to develop black hairy tongue.

Other diseases and medical conditions associated with black hairy tongue are HIV, advanced cancer, and general body disease. In addition, it has been reported that patients with trigeminal neuralgia may develop a black hairy tongue. This painful condition, associated with poor oral intake and poor chewing, is thought to limit tongue movement, chewing, resulting in reduced friction of the tongue against the palate and teeth, eventually preventing the normal deposition of the keratinized filiform papillae, thus leading to the development of a black hairy tongue.

Symptoms of Black Hairy Tongue


In most of the patients, only the change in the appearance of the tongue is the main complaint. Other than the appearance of the tongue, most black hairy tongues do not have symptoms or feel any discomfort. The exception is the overgrowth of the yeast Candida albicans, which can cause a burning sensation on the tongue. This burning sensation is called glossopyrosis.

Some people complain of a metallic taste in their mouth, or a feeling of nausea and tickling in the back of the mouth. In more severe cases, the condition can cause a choking sensation. Sometimes bad breath can occur if food is caught in the extra-long papillae.

Although the color is brown, bronze, green, yellow or white, black discoloration usually occurs on the tongue.

Diagnosis of Black Hairy Tongue


The diagnosis of black hairy tongue is primarily based on visual oral examination. Microscopic examination can be used as an aid to diagnosis, and microscopic examination reveals filiform papillae on the dorsal tongue that are more than 3 mm in length. Bacterial and fungal cultures are thought to rule out overlapping bacterial or fungal infections associated with black hairy tongue. Although tongue biopsy is supportive; usually not necessary if the lesion appears characteristic of a black hairy tongue and is responsive to mechanical debridement. A careful review of the factors that may cause hair growth in the common tongue and new drug changes is also of fundamental importance in the diagnosis of BHT.

Treatment of Black Hairy Tongue


Practicing good oral hygiene is the best way to treat black haired tongue. Gently brush your teeth with a soft toothbrush. Also, brush your tongue. You can use a tongue scraper to make sure you clean the area thoroughly. You should pay attention to the following precautions:
  • Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help keep your mouth clean
  • If you smoke, quit
  • Add more fiber foods to your diet. Soft foods cannot effectively clean the tongue
  • Education on appropriate oral hygiene procedures should be offered to the patient as part of a routine dental appointment.
In medical treatment, an antibiotic or an antifungal medication may be prescribed to get rid of bacteria or yeast. Topical medications such as tretinoin (Retin-A) are also sometimes prescribed. As a last resort, if the problem does not improve, the papillary can be surgically excised with a laser or electrosurgery.

For the treatment of tongue hair, it is appropriate to choose products with prebiotic and probiotic properties and those with high fiber content. For the herbal treatment of tongue hair, parsley, peeled cucumber, peeled apple, lemon peel, fresh ginger can be counted among these examples. Gargling with vinegar water is also recommended. The main treatment is oral care, cessation of smoking, tea, coffee and tobacco use.

Differential Diagnosis of Black Hairy Tongue


Differential diagnosis (diseases and conditions confused with black hairy tongue) includes false hairy tongue (pseudo-BHT), acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungal papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Hairy leukoplakia can be seen in immunocompromised patients and has the appearance of a white plaque on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tongue, buccal mucosa, and gingival.

Complications of Black Hairy Tongue


In untreated patients with prolonged involvement of the taste buds, glossopyrosis or burning mouth syndrome may rarely occur. Again, the metallic taste sensation in the mouth may become permanent, albeit rarely. Black hairy tongue treatment is usually done without any problems with local precautions and changing habits.

Source links >> 
Murat Enoz, MD, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgeon - ENT Doctor in Istanbul

Private Office:
Address: İncirli Cad. No:41, Kat:4 (Dilek Patisserie Building), Postal code: 34147, Bakırköy - İstanbul
Appointment Phone: +90 212 561 00 52
E-Mail: muratenoz@gmail.com
Mobile phone: +90 533 6550199
Fax: +90 212 542 74 47


 

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