Tongue Cancer Definition, Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms and Treatment

Tongue Cancer 

Tongue Cancer
I wrote this article for information purposes only. My mother and father passed away due to different cancer diseases. I don't usually do tongue cancer operations. If there are those around you who have cancer diseases of this kind, I wish you healing and patience to the patients ­čśó

Definition of Tongue Cancer

Tongue cancer is a tumor originating from squamous epithelial cells covering the upper surface of the tongue. Tongue tumors usually occur due to chronic irritations such as alcohol, smoking, tobacco chewing. It is important to raise public awareness and ensure early detection of these tumors, whose frequency is increasing all over the world.

It is the most common type of oral cancer after lip cancers. It is more common in men than in women and is usually more common in the age group 60-70 years and over.

Causes of Tongue Cancer (Risk Factors For Tongue Cancer)

As in other cancers of the head and neck region, smoking and alcohol use are the leading risk factors for tongue cancer. When cigarette and alcohol are used together, the risk amounts are transferred with a synergistic effect. Considering that alcohol and cigarette smoking increase the risk of 6-fold tongue cancer separately, it is thought that birlikte when used together, it can increase the risk of 6x6 slips or 36 times ... ". Passive smoking (exposure to cigarette smoke), cigar use and chewing tobacco also increase the risk of tongue cancer. In addition, sexually transmitted HPV virus infection, genetic factors, exposure to asbestos and perchlorethylene, radiation, dietary factors (such as chewing of Betel Nuts in India ...), poor oral hygiene can also increase the risk of tongue cancer.

Symptoms of Tongue Cancer

 In tongue tumors, there is a frequent complaint of "painless wounds on the tongue". Different symptoms are added according to the location and size of the tumor.

The symptoms of tongue cancer can be listed as follows:

- a red / white patch-like lesion on the tongue that grows over time or becomes raised from the surface
- the appearance of bleeding areas on the tongue during eating or spontaneously.
- pain during chewing or swallowing
- The emergence of ulcerated wound on the tongue
- a sore throat that can hit the ear that does not decrease
- drowsiness in the tongue or mouth
- change in voice (may be due to reduced tongue movements or mass effect)
- hardening of the tongue
- Bad breath smell
- difficulty in opening the mouth
- mass in the neck region
- Painless growth of the neck lymph nodes
- unexplained weight loss
- cannot be fully inserted due to impact of a lump or protrusion in the mouth when using intra-oral prostheses normally used to fit into the mouth.

Tongue Cancer Treatment

When detected early, tongue cancer can be treated at a high rate. The staging of tongue cancer is done according to tumor size and metastasis. Early diagnosis and early treatment are the most important prognostic factors that increase treatment success in tongue cancer. Approximately 70% of patients with early stage disease without disease for 5 years. Tongue root tumors often have a worse prognosis because they are diagnosed late and have a rich lymphatic structure.

Treatment of tongue cancer is mainly surgical. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments are also added in advanced patients. Patient with tongue cancer,
- General condition
- size and location of the tumor
- metastasis (cancer spread to another tissue such as lymph node)
- type of tumor

Surgical, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment options. The best results are obtained in patients with early stage metastasis and good general condition.

Complications of speech and swallowing may vary depending on the amount of excised tissue in tongue cancer surgeries. Lesions with localized T1-T2 disease (ie where the tumor diameter is less than 4 cm and the disease is limited only in the tongue) are treated with surgical or radiotherapy for curative purposes.

Lesions on the margins of the tongue can be excised with a safe surgical margin of 2 cm (partial glossectomy). In more advanced cancers (large tumors, tongue tumors with the possibility of metastasis) to the lymph nodes in the neck, radiotherapy is also applied. Combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is applied in these patients. Chemotherapy treatment can also be used for temporary symptomatic benefit.

In large tongue tumors spreading into the mouth or holding the root of the tongue, additional surgical procedures such as jawbone resection, temporary or permanent perforation of the larynx (tracheotomy), neck dissection (removal of lymph nodes in the neck) are performed.

In recent years, targeted drug therapies using monoclonal antibodies have been tried.

After surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments, diet, speech, swallowing, physical and occupational rehabilitation therapies can be applied.

OmniGuide CO2 Laser Fiber Laser Surgery

OmniGuide CO2 Laser Fiber Laser is a sensitive, safe, laser system that provides tissue control at the same time as cutting the tissue and damaging the tissue at the same time. It allows the surgeon to work close to the tissue and perform bloodless surgery. Since the CO2 laser does not pass through the water, the desired sensitive tissues can be easily protected with wet pomades that can be placed externally when placed with wet pomades or buffers.

Source links >> Tongue cancerTongue Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment - WebMD / About tongue cancer | Tongue cancer | Cancer Research UKOral cancer - NCBI

Murat Enoz, MD, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgeon - ENT Doctor in Istanbul

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