Adenoiditis - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

An Inflammation of The Adenoids

Adenoiditis - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
The nasal flesh is a structure in the lymph tissue structure behind the nostrils, in contact with environmental foreign particles and microbes. In some cases, this tissue can become infected, along with simple upper respiratory tract infections.

Although adenoiditis usually occurs due to bacterial infections (Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); It may also occur due to virus infection (such as Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus and rhinovirus ...).


Adenoiditis is divided into acute and chronic. Acute adenoiditis usually occurs after a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Bacterial agents proliferate in adenoid tissue and infect surrounding tissue. Then, inflammation occurs and exudate production occurs. Symptoms of acute adenoiditis include postnasal drip, runny nose, nasal congestion, snoring, fever, and bad breath.

Although most of the symptoms in chronic adenoiditis are the same; the duration is longer, these symptoms last 90 days permanently. It usually occurs as a result of polymicrobial infections and biofilm formation in which many different factors participate. Formation of exudates is not seen in chronic adenoiditis.

Adenoiditis Symptoms

Adenoiditis symptoms are:

- Inflammatory runny nose
- Postnasal drip
- Fever
- Cough
- Pain on backside of the nose
- halitosis

Sometimes symptoms start as simple upper respiratory tract infection, and may continue as nasal discharge, cough, discharge behind the nasal passages and weakness. At first, a feeling of dryness and pain may be felt in nasal passage.

Precautions For Adenoiditis

Adenoid inflammation is usually found with sinusitis and otitis media.

In adenoid infection, avoiding cigarette smoke and washing the nose with salty water is useful.

If the above symptoms recur frequently despite treatment, the patient should be evaluated in terms of foreign body in the nose and allergic rhinitis in terms of differential diagnosis.

Diagnosis of Adenoiditis

Generally, nasal endoscopic examination and the presence of symptoms are sufficient for diagnosis. In nasal endoscopic examination, a reddened adenoid tissue and an inflammatory secretion can be seen. Swabs to obtain samples of bacteria and other organisms can be used for bacterial culture purposes. Blood tests may be ordered to evaluate for infection.

Complications of Adenoiditis

Adenoiditis can cause the following infections to spread in the ear, nose and throat area as a result of the spread of infectious agents from the area where the adenoid is found:

- Middle ear infection

Bacteria and viruses reach the mouth of the eustachian tube, which is adjacent to the adenoid, and can travel to the middle ear and may be complicated by otitis media.

- Sinusitis

Infection can spread from the bacterial focus on the adenoid to the sinuses.

- Lower respiratory tract infections

Infection can spread to the lower respiratory tract by drip from the nasal area.

Causes of Adenoiditis

It is believed that allergies play a role in the etiology. Nasal allergens come into contact with the nasal tissue. Adenoid hypertrophy occurs to respond to allergens and produce IgA. In case of gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic tissue irritation caused by stomach acid, contact with chemical irritants, being in a crowded and microbial environment, diseases and conditions that can affect immune cysteine may facilitate the occurrence of adenoiditis.

Adenoiditis Treatment

Generally, nasal irrigation with sprays containing local saline, use of anti-inflammatory drugs and supportive treatment are sufficient for treatment. If symptoms such as fever and malaise are added, it may be necessary to use antibiotics.

There is a situation of sinusitis after adenoiditis, which I often experience myself. Although it is rare, when I feel pain in my nasal area, I apply the first measures such as irrigation of the nose with saline water, increasing the amount of warm, warm liquid consumed orally and increasing the resting time as much as possible. Again, steam application containing menthol and eucalyptus is also beneficial.

Murat Enoz, MD, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgeon - ENT Doctor in Istanbul

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